If you are using acados in your scientific work, please cite the original journal publication.

  Title                    = {acados -- a modular open-source framework for fast embedded optimal control},
  Author                   = {Robin Verschueren and Gianluca Frison and Dimitris Kouzoupis and Jonathan Frey and Niels van Duijkeren and Andrea Zanelli and Branimir Novoselnik and Thivaharan Albin and Rien Quirynen and Moritz Diehl},
  Journal                  = {Mathematical Programming Computation},
  Year                     = {2021},

We highly appreciate if you share your acados success stories with the world, and mention them on the List of projects that feature acados. Please submit a PR, make a forum post, or contact the developers if you want to showcase your project there!

Publications on advanced acados features

If you are using some of the following advanced features of acados, please additionally cite the corresponding publications.

Fast integrators with sensitivity propagation for use in CasADi

This paper demonstrates the efficiency of acados integrators, compared with integrators available in CasADi. Additionally it describes the casados-integrator a wrapper which allows using the acados integrators within a CasADi NLP solver, like IPOPT.

  Title                    = {Fast integrators with sensitivity propagation for use in {C}as{AD}i},
  Author                   = {Frey, Jonathan and De Schutter, Jochem and Diehl, Moritz},
  Booktitle                = ECC,
  Year                     = {2023},

Advanced-Step Real-Time Iterations (AS-RTI)

Advanced-step real-time iterations provide an extension to the classic real-time iteration algorithm, which allows to performs additional multi-level iterations in the preparation phase, such as inexact or zero-order SQP iterations on a problem with a predicted state estimate.

This feature can be used by setting the options as_rti_level and as_rti_level.

  Title                    = {Advanced-Step Real-Time Iterations with Four Levels -- New Error Bounds and Fast Implementation in acados},
  Author                   = {Jonathan Frey and Armin Nurkanovic and Moritz Diehl},
  Year                     = {2024},
  Eprint                   = {2403.07101},
  Primaryclass             = {math.OC},
  Url                      = {}

Gauss-Newton Runge-Kutta (GNRK) integrators for efficient discretization of OCPs with long horizons and least-squares costs

The GNRK integration scheme can be used by setting the option cost_discretization = 'INTEGRATOR'. This paper additionally demonstrates the effectiveness of using nonuniform discretization grids, and in particular in combination with GNRK.

  Title                    = {{G}auss-{N}ewton {R}unge-{K}utta Integration for Efficient Discretization of Optimal Control Problems with Long Horizons and Least-Squares Costs},
  Author                   = {Jonathan Frey and Katrin Baumgärtner and Moritz Diehl},
  Booktitle                = {accepted for ECC 2024},
  Url                      = {}

Efficient Zero-Order Robust Optimization (zoRO) for Real-Time Model Predictive Control with acados

  Title                    = {Efficient Zero-Order Robust Optimization for Real-Time Model Predictive Control with acados},
  Author                   = {Jonathan Frey and Yunfan Gao and Florian Messerer and Amon Lahr and Melanie N Zeilinger and Moritz Diehl},
  Booktitle                = ECC,
  Year                     = {2024},

Structure exploiting implicit Runge-Kutta method: GNSF

The GNSF IRK integrator be used by setting the option integrator_tpye = 'GNSF'.

  Title                    = {Detecting and Exploiting {G}eneralized {N}onlinear {S}tatic {F}eedback
Structures in {DAE} Systems for {MPC}},
  Author                   = {Jonathan Frey and Rien Quirynen and Dimitris Kouzoupis and Gianluca Frison and
Jens Geisler and Axel Schild and Moritz Diehl},
  Booktitle                = ECC,
  Year                     = {2019},